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The flexible format of the special issues offered by Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) and its discussion forum Geoscientific Model Development Discussions (GMDD) permits papers related to model development to be grouped in various ways into special issues. The special issue can comprise any number of journals; the special issue editors can be the same or different and from different journals. The manuscript processing follows the standard special issue procedure of the journal in which the manuscript is submitted. All published papers are co/listed on a joint special issue web page (in addition to the regular chronological volume of each journal).
Authors of model or model-experiment description papers are encouraged to submit subsequent manuscripts describing updated versions of the model or model experiment. Such papers will be grouped together using the special issue format. Papers can be added retrospectively to special issues, and single-paper special issues should be avoided. Thus it is expected that authors request or editors suggest the start of the special issue around the time that the second or third manuscript is submitted.
Alternatively, a special issue may consist of papers describing areas such as different modules, coupling strategies, or numerical advances of a complex model. Similarly, for model-experiment description papers, a special issue may include papers describing the different implementations of the experiment and overviews of model output.
In addition to these novel styles of special issue, the GMD editors will also consider requests for special issues of more traditional style, including the EGU inter-journal special issues, which also include articles in other EGU journals.
Features of GMD special issues:
To make arrangements for a special issue (SI), please contact Julia C. Hargreaves (one of the executive editors), and provide the following information:
The following special issues are scheduled for publication in GMD and its discussion forum GMDD:
Observations and modelling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5): the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign sought to quantify and understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles in a particularly clean background in the tropics were influenced by pollutant outflow from a large tropical city. The project addressed the susceptibility of cloud–aerosol–precipitation interactions to present-day and future pollution in the tropics. The experiment took place in central Amazonia from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015, including intensive operating periods and aircraft in the wet and dry seasons of 2014.
Geoscience model infrastructure provides architecture and services for building physics-based numerical models and combining multiple models into a coupled system. Examples of model infrastructure are software libraries and frameworks that provide data structures and functions for parallel data transfer and grid interpolation, define a common interface for model components, manage a model's control flow, abstract details of parallel programming, or provide supporting capabilities such as configuration management and file I/O. The special issue of GMD is dedicated to exploring all aspects of model infrastructure integration and interoperability. Model infrastructure integration is the software engineering process of adopting an infrastructure package into a numerical model's codebase, to address new scientific requirements, enable interoperability with other models, or to improve a model's performance. Model infrastructure interoperability is required whenever multiple infrastructure packages must interact in some way in a coupled system, for example, to couple model components that originate from different scientific communities into a single cohesive system. Topics of interest for this issue include but are not limited to the following: the design and implementation of geoscience model infrastructure software; experience reports on integrating infrastructure into models; modelling systems that span scientific communities; framework interoperability, metadata and semantic mediation; performance on emerging hardware platforms; configuration and build management; and tools that support infrastructure integration, code refactoring, verification, or debugging.
SimSphere is a one-dimensional soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer model devoted to the study of land surface interactions of the Earth's system. Since its early development, the model has become highly variable in its application use.
Apart from its use as an educational tool at several universities worldwide, SimSphere is used in a number of research studies related to the examination of hypothetical scenarios examining land surface processes and feedbacks. It is also used synergistically with Earth observation (EO) data to retrieve spatiotemporal estimates of energy fluxes and surface soil moisture, involving exploration studies on the development of related operational products.
This special issue hosts contributions concerned with descriptions of further upgrades of SimSphere or its exploitation in any way. It comprises articles on model developments or applications involving the model; this includes – but is not limited to – studies exploring hypothetical scenario examination, model validation, sensitivity analysis and synergies of it with EO data.
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has been a major, very successful endeavor of the climate community for understanding past climate changes and for making projections and uncertainty estimates of the future in a multi-model framework. CMIP has developed in phases, with the simulations of the fifth phase, CMIP5, mostly completed. This special issue describes the new design and organization of CMIP and the suite of experiments of its next phase (i.e., CMIP6) in a series of invited contributions. The description of the experiments and forcing data sets presented here define CMIP6 in detail. The papers provide the required information to produce a consistent set of climate model simulations that can be scientifically exploited to address the three broad scientific questions of CMIP6: (1) How does the Earth system respond to forcing?, (2) What are the origins and consequences of systematic model biases?, and (3) How can we assess future climate changes given climate variability, predictability and uncertainties in scenarios? The special issue will include an overview paper on the CMIP6 design and organization, contributions from CMIP6-endorsed MIPs and descriptions of the forcing data sets.
The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) is a multi-institutional project providing a strategy and the software for developing Earth System Models (ESMs) with highly flexible complexity.
The strategy follows a bottom-up approach, meaning that the various processes and diagnostic tools are implemented as so-called submodels, which are technically independent of each other and strictly separated from the underlying technical model infrastructure, such as memory management, input/output, flow-control, etc.
The MESSy software provides generalized interfaces for the standardized control and interconnection (coupling) of these submodels.
The present time-unlimited Special Issue hosts scientific and technical documentation and evaluation manuscripts concerned with the Modular Earth Submodel System and the models build upon it. Moreover, it comprises manuscripts about scientific applications involving these models.
The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has been highly successful in identifying robust climate model response to various geoengineering scenarios. There are currently seven core GeoMIP simulations, with another four submitted as GeoMIP's contribution to CMIP6. These experiments evaluate model response to various forms of geoengineering, focusing on solar dimming, stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, marine cloud brightening via sea spray, and cirrus cloud thinning. In this special issue, we examine results from these simulations that have been conducted by 15 climate modeling centers from around the world. The results presented here provide a key source of information about the range of potential climate effects from geoengineering, any possible unintended side effects that geoengineering may cause, and the efficacy of geoengineering as a response to climate change. These simulations also reveal fundamental climate responses to radiative forcing, illuminating various feedback processes and interactions between different components of climate models.
The Weather Research and Forecast community modelling system coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) provides the capability to simulate and forecast weather, trace gases, and aerosols from hemispheric to urban scales. WRF-Chem is a community model. WRF-Chem is an online modelling system which includes the treatment of the aerosol direct and indirect effect. It incorporates many choices for gas phase chemistry and aerosols with degrees of complexity that are suitable for forecasting and research applications. Due to its versatility WRF-Chem is attracting a large user and developer community world-wide. The present time-unlimited Special Issue hosts scientific technical documentation and evaluation manuscripts concerned with the community version of WRF-Chem.
This special issue groups together documentation papers for successive releases of the Met Office Unified Model (UM) Global Atmosphere (GA) and JULES Global Land (GL) configurations. GA and GL are science configurations of the UM and JULES developed for use across weather prediction and climate research timescales. Each paper presents a scientific description of the latest configuration, a fuller description of incremental changes since the previous configuration and a brief summary of their performance.
NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) is a state-of-the-art modelling framework for oceanographic research, operational oceanography seasonal forecast and climate studies. The NEMO components are NEMO-OPA (the "blue" ocean, modelling the ocean dynamics and solving the primitive equations); NEMO-LIM (the "white ocean" for modelling sea-ice), and NEMO-TOP (the "green ocean" for modelling biogeochemistry). NEMO also includes grid refinement software (AGRIF) and an assimilation component (linear-tangent NEMO-TAM, Observational operators NEMO-OBS, and increment NEMO-ASM). The "blue ocean" component is fundamental to all users. NEMO can also be interfaced to a number of other components such as atmosphere models or alternative other models of sea-ice or biogeochemistry, to enable Earth system modelling.
This Special Issue aims to collect technical and scientific manuscripts dealing with evaluation of model skill and performance as well as development of NEMO components. Submitted manuscripts can cover a wide variety of topics, including process studies, new parameterizations, implementation of new model features and new NEMO configurations. The main scope is to collect relevant and state of the art manuscripts to provide the NEMO users with a single portal to search, discover and understand about the NEMO modelling framework potential and evolution and submit their contributions.
iLOVECLIM is an intermediate complexity fully coupled climate earth system model that aims at computation and understanding of the climate system on millennial timescale. It is a code fork from the LOVECLIM climate model version 1.2. From its forerunner, iLOVECLIM retains only the physical climate components (atmosphere – ocean – terrestrial vegetation modules). It is developed further to progressively include the components necessary for multi-millenia palaeoclimate and future climate experiments. As such, iLOVECLIM is a tool designed to enhance the integration of model simulations and (palaeo-)data, with an emphasis on the simulation of isotopic tracers throughout all components of the climate system, as indicated by the i prefix. The present, time unlimited, Special Issue hosts the technical documentation of the current version of iLOVECLIM as well as model evaluation manuscripts.
The Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) is a global, coupled model system for the physical climate system, which can be run with various degrees of interactions with bio-geo-chemical processes in the earth system. NorESM is developed as a nationally coordinated effort in Norway, but important parts of the model code are imported from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and Community Earth System Model (CESM) projects operated at NCAR on behalf of UCAR in USA.
The NorESM publications in this Special Issue address the first family of NorESM versions which has delivered results to CMIP5. They are based on public releases of CCSM4 (April 1st 2010) and CESM1 (1 July 2010). The full core version includes own developed code for chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in the atmospheric module (CAM4-Oslo); an isopycnic coordinate ocean model developed in Bergen and originating from the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model MICOM); the HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle (HAMOCC) model developed at the Max-Plank-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg and adapted to the isopycnic ocean model framework. Papers developed on the basis of the full core version (NorESM1-ME) or on selected sub-versions (e.g. NorESM1-M, NorESM-L) are welcome in this Special Issue.
CMIP5 represents the most ambitious and computer-intensive model inter-comparison project ever attempted. Integrating a new generation of Earth system models and sharing the model results with a broad community has brought with it many significant technical challenges, along with new community-wide efforts to provide the necessary software infrastructure. This special issue will focus on the software that supports the scientific enterprise for CMIP5, including: couplers and coupling frameworks for Earth system models; the Common Information Model and Controlled Vocabulary for describing models and data; The development of the Earth System Grid Federation; the development of new portals for providing data access to different end-user communities; the scholarly publishing of datasets, and studies of the software development and testing processes used for the CMIP5 models. We especially welcome papers that offer comparative studies of the software approaches taken by different groups, and lessons learnt from community efforts to create shareable software components and frameworks.
The climate record of the last millennium holds much promise for identifying the links between forcings and responses at the global, hemispheric and regional scale. The specifications for the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project Phase III (PMIP3) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase V (CMIP5) include controlled experiments for the period 850 to 1850 CE. The implementation of those experiments, the collation and development of the climate drivers over this period, and the assessment of the model responses are the focus of this special issue of Geoscientific Model Development.
The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model is a computationally-efficient coupled general circulation model, designed primarily for the study of climate variability and change on millennial timescales. The model distribution is freely available to the research community. This Special Issue allows the history and evolution of Mk3L to be comprehensively documented within a single issue of a journal. Papers are welcome which describe and evaluate components of the model, and which describe and evaluate subsequent enhancements to the modelling system. The issue is also intended for papers which document specific experiments, particularly those which contribute towards Model Intercomparison Projects.
In 2008 the temporal focus of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project was expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (ca. 3 Ma BP). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and comprise phase 1 of the PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) will be performed with atmosphere-only GCMs. The second (Experiment 2) will utilise fully coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs. In previous PMIP-style studies it has often been challenging to disentangle the effects of differences in model parametrisations and physics from differences in the methodology employed to implement the palaeo-boundary conditions. This special issue of Geoscientific Model Development provides a means for each participating group within PlioMIP to provide detailed information on how Pliocene boundary conditions were included within their models. This will help facilitate the identification of discrepancies between models at the intercomparison phase. The issue also provides a means for each group to provide basic climatology's from each PlioMIP experiment, ensuring that a minimum level of output is readily available for the intercomparison phase. Finally the issue includes two papers that describe in detail the experimental design and boundary conditions used for both PlioMIP Experiments 1 and 2.
FAMOUS is climate model based on the widely-used "HadCM3" atmosphere-ocean general circulation code, a version of the UK Met Office Unified Model. Run at a lower resolution than HadCM3 its computational requirements make it suitable for large ensembles and millennial-scale climate simulations. This ongoing Special Issue collects technical documentation and evaluations of the model climatology as FAMOUS is developed and coupled to models of other Earth system components.